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Power Transmission

The Transmission library includes the Transmission System Operations training series, which benefits transmission system operators and operator trainees. The courses provide in-depth reviews of the fundamentals and advanced concepts of day-to-day and emergency operations of transmission assets. It also takes up monitoring and control processes, according to NERC standards.

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Course Title Hours Price

This course introduces students to the subject of protective relays as they apply to generation sources in the electric power system. The course includes discussions of various generation schemes, generator grounding issues, backup protection schemes for generators, and the impacts of harmonics on generator protection. In addition, the course details how both electromechanical and digital relays are employed in providing various types of problem/fault detection and protection.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to discuss the characteristics of different types of faults, and their effects on the power system. Knowledge of this material is vital to understanding the protective schemes that are presented in future courses. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present concepts which are vital tools in the interpretation of system operating conditions. The participant should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

This course introduces the student to various applications of protective relays (bus protection, line protection, transformer protection) as well as types of protective relays (instantaneous overcurrent, time overcurrent, undervoltage, electromechanical, digital).

The course uses many images from the power system, including images of transformers, substations, protective relays, and relay panels. In addition, there are multiple videos depicting protective relay and equipment movement, as well as simulations and animations that lead the student through the various application and fault scenarios.

2 $65

This course provides an overview of the function of protection schemes, including general protection philosophy and its impact on the operation of the system. The participant should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

In this course, you will learn about the NERC requirements concerning voltage control.

Voltage control plays a substantial role in determining the success of electrical operations. It is important to study voltage relationships and the impact of these relationships on various types of electrical systems that are handling various types of voltages.

2 $65

This course is an introduction to the concepts of underfrequency and undervoltage. During this lesson you will learn to relate these concepts to NERC and regional coordinating authority standards. You will test your knowledge of these relationships in several quizzes.

By the end of this lesson you will understand the different roles and relationships that underfrequency and undervoltage maintain in many workplace practices.

2 $65

Synchronizing islands is critical to system restoration. In this course you will learn how islanding occurs, how to synchronize islands, and how to handle underfrequency and undervoltage occurrences in electrical systems.

You will also review NERC standards and their relevance to the control and restoration of an island.

2 $65

Safety requires a particular frame of mind, a personal commitment, an awareness, and full safety compliance, based upon knowledge, training, and experience. The safety of employees and field personnel, and even the safety of the public, depend upon your conscientious and disciplined use of safe work practices in all of your day – to – day operations.

This course provides an overview of high – voltage power – system operations and will allow you to engage with the material by participating in training exercises requiring the application of system operating knowledge.

2 $65

This course emphasizes the importance of clear communication and coordination while carrying out emergency operations. As you proceed through this course, you will be asked to reflect on the outlined concepts and apply those concepts to the real – world examples provided throughout each lesson.

This course covers emergency operations as well as applicable key NERC Standards and is intended for training purposes.

4 $85

Effective monitoring and management of control performance is the cornerstone of reliability. It is important to be able to understand and apply both NERC and regional standards as they apply to control performance requirements.

This course is intended as a review of NERC Control Performance requirements. The concepts and applications presented throughout the course will familiarize you with each policy and standard.

4 $85

This course presents the main features and advantages of PLCs, including hardware arrangements, software (i.e. programming) and typical applications. Extension of the PLC is discussed, noting features of a typical distributed control system.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to draw attention to the many factors that affect the accuracy of testing on protection circuits and equipment. Fundamental testing techniques are presented along with a discussion of the pitfalls to be avoided. A demonstration on the use of the oscilloscope is included. The need for specific safety precautions is also discussed.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present the concepts on which fault calculations are made. Both balanced and non – balanced faults are discussed, including phase – to – phase and phase – to – ground faults. The use of ‘percent impedance’ is shown and the use of symmetrical components is discussed.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to draw attention to the problem of inadvertent trips and misoperation of protection equipment. Typical case studies are presented, with the conclusions leading to recommended procedures to help reduce inadvertent trips.

2 $65

This course will discuss the application of SCADA systems (EMS, and DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION), and present the main features of modern installations including equipment layout, communications, operations and maintenance.

2 $65

The purpose of this course is to continue the discussion of telecommunications protection. While course 2119 presented protection devices, this course focuses on specific installation practice and typical configurations. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to draw attention to the high voltage hazards that can occur on telecommunication circuits entering substations and power stations, and to review the protection devices that are used to combat this problem. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss supervision of the hydro generator including control, monitoring, and protection. Included is a review of the significance of active and reactive power output from the generator.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss supervision of the hydro generator including control, monitoring, and protection. Included is a review of the significance of active and reactive power output from the generator.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss supervision of the hydro generator including control, monitoring, and protection. Included is a review of the significance of active and reactive power output from the generator.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to introduce and present the major features of static relaying, including analog – type solid – state relays and digital microprocessor relays. At this stage in the program, it is assumed that all participants are thoroughly familiar with the functions and characteristics of the different types of relays. This course focuses upon the differences between solid state and electromechanical relays.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to demonstrate the various methods that are used to investigate equipment performance during fault conditions. While various types of fault recorders are considered, particular emphasis is placed upon the interpretation of oscillograms.

2 $65

This course presents a more detailed examination of power line carrier (PLC) systems. Earlier courses looked at the protection schemes that employ PLC as the communication medium. This course focuses upon the PLC equipment itself.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss the many factors involved in commissioning new power installations, placing particular emphasis on the testing of protective schemes. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their work activities.

2 $65

The purpose of this course is to present protection schemes that are used to assist in maintaining system stability. The concept of steady – state operation and dynamic response is demonstrated with particular reference to the power angle curve. The physical consequences of instability are also discussed. The participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and be able to apply them to their day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The purpose of this course is to familiarize participants with the principles of pilot protection, the various schemes used and the different types of communication channels employed. The participant should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present the broad categories of line configuration and discuss the various types of protection schemes that are employed. Particular attention is paid to coordination for selective tripping and isolation of faulty circuits. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The purpose of this course is to familiarize the participant with the features of motor operation and the most common types of protective devices that are installed. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to review the different bus layouts that are used in power systems and to present the different protection schemes that are installed to protect against bus faults. The participant should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to review the types of faults that can occur in transformers and to present the different protection schemes that are installed on large and small transformers. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day – to – day work activities.

2 $65

This course covers aspects of generation control. Performance is discussed throughout, and analysis shows how the application of relevant NERC Standards pertains to specific aspects of system control.

2 $65

As a transmission grid system operator you are expected to make assessments and to comprehend the status and analog data for which electrical calculations are essential. While our SCADA and EMS applications provide most of the data, it is important to understand how basic electrical quantities are derived. Given that conditions vary, it is important to grasp the implications of differing data sets and contingencies. For instance, a trainee will be expected to identify how ACE impacts a controlled response given AGC generation and BA interconnectivity, and how high voltage and reactive control may affect system reliability. The trainee must be able to list the components that generate negative and positive reactive power, master best choice responses to various conditional situations, and demonstrate how to respond to overloaded systems.

2 $65

The objective of System Control is to bring about an orderly flow of power from the generating source to the load (power consumer) while maintaining the utmost level of safety, reliability, and stability throughout the system. This course discusses the requirements and procedures of System Control and the relationships of these requirements and procedures to applicable NERC Standards.

2 $65

In the late 1990s the electrical power industry is going through a rapid period of change. The opening of the transmission systems to competition among generators and the splitting of vertically integrated utilities have changed the structure of the industry. The widespread blackout in northeastern North America in 1965 provided a great impetus for cooperation among utilities. With the advent of competition this has been replaced by the need for confidentiality. In this course we examine some of the implications for transmission system control brought about by these changes. CE HOURS = 2.00 OPS Topics=2.00 Standards=0.00 Simulation=0.00 EO=0.00.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to focus attention on the factors that must be considered when dispatching energy and ancillary services under competitive market conditions. Procedures are indicated for a typical ISO, noting that detailed methodology will vary with different locations. CE HOURS = 2.00 OPS Topics=2.00 Standards=0.00 Simulation=0.00 EO=0.00.

2 $65

This course provides a general overview of the purpose of deregulation in the electric utility industry in North America.

2 $65

This course provides the student with a broad overview of protective relaying as relates to the transmission system. It also provides basic information on the input measurements that must take place for protective relays to perform correctly and to not operate at unintended times.

2 $65

This course gives the student an overview of the ways in which electric utilities monitor events on and the status of the transmission system, and how communication of needed information takes place.

2 $65

This course gives the student an overview of the events that take place during a blackout situation that requires system restoration. These events include the necessary preparations and precautions that must be taken to minimize the time and magnitude of any blackout, as well as the steps that should be taken to prepare the system for restoration.

2 $65

This course covers a variety of abnormal electric system operating conditions, and their implications. The student will learn about faults on the system, loss of generation, equipment – specific problems, and interchange emergencies.

2 $65

This course exposes the student to methods for responding to system events and emergencies. The student will learn about power flows, stability, and interconnections, as well as corrective and emergency actions.

2 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss the various factors that must be taken into consideration when dispatching generation. Although most of the technical factors will remain after deregulation, it is probable that some aspects of dispatching will change to accommodate the competitive market for generation. This subject will be dealt with later in the program.

2 $65

This course describes the methods and problems encountered when trying to control transmission system frequency. Topics covered include Frequency Concepts, Control of Frequency, Tie – Line Control, and Automatic Generation Control (AGC).

2 $65

This course introduces the student to the concepts and practices of system voltage control as related to the high – voltage transmission of electrical power. The course focuses on the impacts of transmission line loading and voltage control equipment.

2 $65

This course introduces the student to the concepts and practices involved in high voltage transmission of electrical power. The course focuses on transmission lines, substation equipment, and transformers.

2 $65

This course introduces the student to the basic concepts needed to understand power flows and generation within the bulk electric system. The course includes basic electrical concepts such as Ohm’s law as it relates to the transfer of electricity from one location to another. In addition, materials are presented to familiarize the student with the actual production of alternating current (AC) electricity.

2 $65

Once the generator is synchronized and on line, it locks itself in and remains in synchronism unless an abnormal condition occurs. Our discussion of electric power so far has involved voltages and currents being generated in single – phase operation, but electric power is normally generated, transmitted, and distributed in the form of three – phase power, as discussed here.

2 $65

While it is true that the larger the impedance, the larger the regulation for any given amount of load, what is meant by saying that a transformer is perfect or ideal? Why does the inductive reactance of the transformer occur? And what happens to the secondary voltage if the load is removed?.

In this part, you will calculate impedance and voltage drop across the various elements of a circuit; study the effects a change in the power factor can have on the active, reactive, and apparent power demands of a load; describe what happens when a capacitor is placed across the terminals of a motor, and discuss how to increase load transfer along a line.

2 $65

In this part the discussion turns to methods that can be used to produce a DC voltage and suggests why AC voltage is easier to handle; how a rotating magnetic field induces voltage and current into the stator winding and what a stator is. It also distinguishes between RMS values and maximum values and names which is used most often and for what end.

2 $65

Over the last century or so, electricity has become an increasingly important and integral part of our daily lives. Knowledge of the fundamentals of electricity and application is increasingly necessary not only for those of us who work in the electric power industry, but also for the general public.

In this four – module program on electrical fundamentals, we introduce for study the general physics or basic natural laws that govern the use of electricity. This material will serve as a solid foundation on which to build the more advanced concepts dealt with in our many other training programs.

In presenting this material, we have tried to limit mathematics and complicated calculations, preferring instead to demonstrate concepts by the use of powerful animated graphics. However, we cannot dispense with calculations altogether, so please stick with us; this material does get more and more interesting as we proceed.

This part answers such questio.

2 $65

The following course is intended to help you to prepare for the NERC Certification Exam. This course will familiarize you with many concepts that you should expect to encounter in the exam.

The course also offers a variety of review documents, study tools, and practice exam questions to aid you in your preparation efforts.

This course is a tool and to be effective it must be coupled with your study of the NERC Standards and real – time application thereof.

Please review the NERC Glossary of Terms before beginning this module.

4 $85

The following course is intended to help you to prepare for the NERC Certification Exam. This course will familiarize you with many concepts that you should expect to encounter in the exam.

The course also offers a variety of review documents, study tools, and practice exam questions to aid you in your preparation efforts.

This course is a tool and to be effective it must be coupled with your study of the NERC Standards and real – time application thereof.

Please review the NERC Glossary of Terms before beginning this module.

6 $105

This course introduces the concept of Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) and the Reliability Standards developed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). Critical Infrastructure Protection is the protection of government – identified assets, both logical and physical, that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy.

This course explores the cybersecurity measures implemented by NERC as part of their mission to ensure the reliability of the bulk power system in North America.

4 $85

This course introduces the student to NERC Standard PER – 005, which is intended to ensure that system operators who perform real – time, reliability – related tasks on the North American Bulk Electric System (BES) are competent to perform their assigned reliability – related tasks. Topics covered include an introduction to what PER – 005 is all about, PER – 005 training topics, a review of certification requirements, the specific requirements of NERC Standard PER – 005, how to comply with PER – 005, measures, and data retention.

1 $32.5

This course provides an introduction and overview of the three key NERC standards: CIP – 004, PER – 005, and TOP – 007. Scenarios in which the user must make decisions that are consistent with NERC requirements are also part of this course.

1 $32.5

2003 U. S. Eastern Area Blackout
I. Getting Started
A. Purpose of This Training
B. Learning Objectives
C. Training Methods and Measurements.

II. The 2003 Blackout
An overview of events
(1) Pre – disturbance
(2) Cascading Events and Timetable
B. Root Causes of the blackout
C. How it Might Have Been Prevented or Limited in Scope

III. Completion Exercise
This course is prepared to provide a summary review of the U.S. Eastern area blackout that occurred on August 14, 2003. The learning objectives are for (a) the training familiarization with the root causes of this cascading occurrence; (B) review of restoration techniques; and (c) building of emergency preparedness skill sets.
The review of any grid disturbance is conducted in order to learn from the event in order to enhance our emergency preparedness. It is important to learn from the past, but also to recognize the great value and daily contribution of our grid operations personnel.

There will be a completion exercise to measure the effectiveness of this training module and to provide a feed – back for your evaluation of the training module.

2 $65

This last portion of the course reviews IRO Standards, NERC PRC and CIP Standards, protecting cyber assets and cyber security. Security monitoring and NERC compliance relate to operations and annual emergency preparedness training should include these contingencies as well.

5 $105

Good communication keeps the power rolling. Whether it’s a smoother migration or a restoration effort, listen to what others are saying and share the information. Know also the length of the Performance – Reset Period.

This part covers e – tagging as well as INT standards and Emergency Operations. Remember well: preparedness in an emergency situation is not the responsibility of just one person but of all concerned. Everyone plays a part.

5 $105

Knowledge of the NERC standards and the application of these standards in the workplace are important for maintaining reliability and good operating practices. This course is designed to provide you with a practical understanding of each NERC operating standard.

“Face time” is the time spent reading and studying the standards. At the end of the course, you will complete an exercise that will test how well you understand the NERC Standards and how to apply each standard.

4 $85

The objective of this course is to present and discuss techniques of liquid analysis in order to collect data for condition monitoring of equipment. In particular insulating oils, lube oils, and water analysis are dealt with. After completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand and apply the following concepts in day – to – day activities.

1.5 $65

The objective of this course is to present and discuss the types of electrical tests being performed today for condition monitoring of large high voltage equipment such as generators and transformers. This includes “off – line” and “on – line” testing. The participant should be able to understand the following concepts, and employ these in work activities.

1.5 $65

The objective of this course is to present an overview of different types of NDE testing techniques which are performed on mechanical equipment. Various techniques are demonstrated, noting their suitability for identifying particular types of material defects and degradation.

4 $85

The objective of this course is to provide an understanding of vibration in machinery, including modes of vibration measurement. Typical examples of vibration analysis are presented, plus an introduction to the technique of balancing.

4 $85

The objective of this course is to present and discuss supervision of the hydro generator including control, monitoring, and protection. Included is a review of the significance of active and reactive power output from the generator.

4 $85

The objective of this course, the first in the series on Condition Monitoring, is to focus attention on the overall maintenance task, the different levels of maintenance required, and the development of Predictive Maintenance with its attendant need for ‘condition monitoring’.

4 $85

A high level overview of protective relaying from a system operator perspective, this course covers operating principles and construction of complex protective relays used in industrial and utility systems. It covers the major types of system protection available in elementary and major relay types, and explains the principle of operation for these, as well as identifying key applicable NERC protection standards.

2 $65

NERC Standard PER – 005 requires competency of System Operators. Each must demonstrate it by measureable means. At least every 12 months each Reliability Coordinator, Balancing Authority, and Transmission Operator must provide each of its System Operators with at least 32 hours of emergency operations training applicable to its organization that reflects emergency operations topics, which includes system restoration using drills, exercises, or other training required to maintain qualified personnel.

2 $65

This course focuses on bulk electric system (BES) and individual system restoration following significant breakup, islanding, or blackout. The trainee will demonstrate fundamental decision – making skills and the capacity to respond to situational exercises pertaining to these electric systems. This will include explanation of how extremely abnormal system conditions may affect indications, equipment, and the reclosing of tripped CBs. As well as demonstrating how to recover and re – synchronize an islanded system, showing how to sectionalize, prepare express transmission paths, and rebuild a blacked – out system, and explaining key steps for preparing and executing system restoration tasks. Trainees must also demonstrate response readiness in emergency situations.

2 $65

This course stresses information dealing with a number of issues related to the transfer of energy on the power system as well as the background necessary to fully understand interchange schedules that result from transaction tags established by PSEs. During the latter portions of the course, you will review the provisions of NERC Standard IRO – 004, which deal with planning for system operation during both normal and emergency conditions and during system restoration. Finally, you will review NERC’s requirements for reliability coordinators as set out in Standard EOP – 006.

2 $65

This course deals with aspects of NERC TOP and VAR Standards of control area transmission, operations, coordination and voltage, and reactive control. This course will include information on NERC EOP Standards concerning emergency operations with specific reference to TOP – 002 concerning the planning requirements for emergency operations and transmissions operations. This course emphasizes the importance of reviewing each NERC Standard with the assumption that particular attention be given to a review of those NERC Standards covered in each segment of the course.

2 $65

The following course is intended to help you to prepare for the NERC Certification Exam. This course will familiarize you with many concepts that you should expect to encounter in the exam.

In this part you will discuss what should happen when islanded. For instance, what does using one or more generators to energize lines and loads after blackout require? How should frequency be set before picking up load? For first load pick – up during black – start, what is required?.

In lesson one, you will review different black – start scenarios and e – Tagging highlights, and discuss how to qualify for an exception (cancellation request). The second lesson consists of control and performance review questions, such as minimum requirements of spinning reserve, how CPSI can be interpreted, and inadvertent interchange accumulations pay back.

The course also offers a variety of review documents, study tools, and practice exam questions to aid you in your preparat.

2 $65

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